Oidium, also known as "powdery mildew," is a fungal disease that was probably brought to Europe from North America when botanical samples were gathered. In the 1850s oidium destroyed countless vineyards in France before it was discovered that a mix of sulfur, lime, and water could halt its spread. The disease, which attacks all the green parts of a vine, still exists worldwide. Most native American vines are resistant, while many varieties of European vitis vinifera vines are susceptible to the powdery fungus, particularly Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay.